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STIRRER

Role of epigenetic and tranScripTomIcs modifications in interspecific hybRids In changing the rules of crossover regulation: the Brassica model
  • 3 years programme (starting march 2020)
  • Budget: 181 189 €
  • Financer: ANR
  • Coordinator and Igepp Contact: Mathieu Rousseau-Gueutin

Meiotic recombination is the main mechanism allowing reshuffling the genetic diversity at each generation. It is thus critical to the introduction of genes of interest into crops, and in the process of reducing their environmental footprint, while at the same time maintaining both yield and quality. However, as meiosis is strictly controlled, the introduction of alleles of interest may take a decade and cannot be applied to the genomic regions that are deprived of recombination. Indeed, only one and rarely three crossovers (COs) per homologous chromosomes are formed during meiosis. These COs are not randomly distributed along the chromosomes (mainly in distal regions of the chromosomes). Recently, we showed that it is possible to change drastically both the number and localization of COs through interspecific hybridization and aneuploidy. By crossing the allopolyploid oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC, 2n=4x=38) crop with one of its progenitor, B. rapa (AA, 2n=2x=20), we obtained allotriploid hybrids (AAC, 2n=3x=29). In these hybrids, we observed a 3.4x increase of COs number and a modification of the CO landscape with CO formation in normally cold regions (pericentromeres) of the A chromosomes. This project aims at increasing our knowledge on the origin of this modified regulation of meiosis. The results from the STIRRER project will provide major knowledge highlighting the natural mechanisms involved in meiotic (de)regulation, and will generate a major translational impact by providing novel and effective breeding strategies in a major crop.